Perforated jejunal diverticulum with abscess: a literature review

Miroslava Kuzmova, Mikhael Salame, Philippe Colonval (1) Published in the journal : October 2021 Category : Clinical Report

Acquired diverticula of the small intestine are formed via a mucosa and submucosa herniation through the muscular layer of the intestinal wall.

These diverticula remain asymptomatic in 60 to 70% of cases. Symptoms, when present, are non-specific, as they likely imitate other acute intra-abdominal conditions. The etiological diagnosis proves often difficult following initial assessment. In most cases, an exploratory laparoscopy is necessary in view of an accurate diagnosis.

This article consists of an exhaustive review of the literature in regard to this pathology.

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Antenatal management of disorders of sex development

Cécile Habran (1), Marie Laterre (2), Julie Fudvoye (3), Michelle Nisolle (4) Published in the journal : October 2021 Category : Clinical Report

Disorders of sex development (DSD) represent a diagnostic challenge. The complexity and variability of DSD and their psychosocial consequences require multidisciplinary care, including obstetricians, endocrino-pediatricians, clinical geneticists, pediatric urologists, neonatologists, psychologists, as well as child psychiatrists. The clinical case described herein is a genotypic-phenotypic discordance. Indeed, the non-invasive prenatal test argued in favor of a male chromosomal sex, whereas the fetal ultrasound was rather in favor of a female phenotype. The antenatal biological explorations will likely enable us to review both the mechanisms and genes involved in sex determination and sexual differentiation. Currently, a molecular diagnosis is found in only 30-50% of cases pertaining to 46, XY. In the event of an unusual external genitalia appearance, 75% of the reported cases are related to 46, XY, the most commonly encountered being hypospadias. The etiology retained in this foetal case is idiopathic DSD, with normal testicular function and severe intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Despite the improved etiological and genetic knowledge of sexual differentiation, the understanding of the underlying physiopathology is still incomplete, and some clinical situations remain unresolved.

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Understanding, recognizing, and preventing Necrotizing enterocolitis of the newborn

Stéphanie Jasienski (1), Bénédicte Van Grambezen (1) , Renaud Menten (2), Olivier Danhaive (1) Published in the journal : September 2021 Category : Clinical Report

Necrotizing enterocolitis remains the leading intestinal cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Given that this clinical condition can be unpredictable and fulminant, it is paramount to recognize this disease quickly and initiate appropriate treatment promptly so as to achieve better clinical outcomes. The condition’s management is multidisciplinary. Therefore, transferring the patient to a tertiary hospital with pediatric surgery must be considered in advanced cases. The condition’s physiopathology is still incompletely understood, with several factors considered to be involved, including the intestinal mucosa’s immaturity with innate immunity dysregulation, vascular immaturity, as well as microbiota imbalance that may be of iatrogenic origin. Complications may arise early or later in the disease course. Human milk and probiotics are the most established preventive measures.

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Surgical treatment of posttraumatic pseudo-aneurysm of right subclavian artery

Justine Malvaux (1), Asmae Belhaj (2), Philippe Eucher (3) Published in the journal : September 2021 Category : Clinical Report

Right proximal subclavian artery traumatism is rare, but it may be associated with pseudo-aneurysm formation. Currently, its treatment consists of an endovascular procedure using covered stenting. Indeed, open surgery can be quite challenging due to the subclavian artery’s anatomical; therefore, such an intervention is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. We report the case of a 71-year-old man presenting with a right proximal subclavian artery pseudo-aneurysm following a car injury having occurred 11 years prior. Several endovascular procedures were performed, but they all failed to exclude the aneurysm. This report sought to demonstrate that an open surgical approach is still possible following failure of less invasive interventions. A right aorto-carotido-subclavian bypass was carried out using an approach combining a median sternotomy and right cervicotomy. The patient’s postoperative course was uneventful. The first follow-up at 6 weeks post-intervention confirmed both the exclusion of the pseudo-aneurysm and vascular permeability. Yet, the 1-year-follow-up is mandatory to confirm this favorable outcome.

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Unusual cause of back pain in a previously healthy teenager

Lara Lunelli, Camelia Rossi, Nathalie Demeulenaere, Marc Léon, Xavier Collard Published in the journal : July 2021 Category : Clinical Report

Infectious spondylodiscitis is a rare disease in children, generally of hematogenic origin. In the reported case, the clinical presentation was non-specific, whereas the usual symptom consisting of severe low back pain was present.

The responsible agent, which is not always found, is usually detected using blood cultures. The most commonly implicated germs are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus α-hemolytic, Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria, and gram-negative bacilli

Evidence of Streptococcus pyogenes is anecdotical.

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Anti-SAE ½ antibody-associated dermatomyositis on adalimumab treatment: a case report

Léa Frisson, Cédric Mahiat, Pauline Richez, Liliane Marot, Henri Colin, Philippe D’Abadie, Julie Lelotte, Jean Cyr Yombi, Halil Yildiz Published in the journal : July 2021 Category : Clinical Report

Dermatomyositis (DM) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder affecting the skin and muscles, whose etiology is often unknown. While DM induced by biological agents like anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha agents is uncommon, this disorder is mainly seen in patients with autoimmune disorders or underlying neoplasms. We report the case of a 57-year-old female patient who developed DM with anti-small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 activating enzyme (anti-SAE 1/2) antibodies following an adalimumab treatment on account of refractory hidradenitis suppurativa. Our patient presented typical cutaneous findings consisting of heliotrope rash, Gottron papule, arthralgia, joint swelling, proximal muscle weakness, and dysphagia. Laboratory studies showed mild inflammatory syndrome, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia, high LDH levels, yet normal CK, AST, and ALT levels. Myositis-specific antibody assay was found to be positive for anti-SAE 1/2 antibodies. The electromyogram (EMG) and muscle biopsy revealed inflammatory myopathy. Systemic corticosteroid therapy was initiated. As a result, the patient’s joint pain and muscle strength both improved following 7 days of treatment. A clinical recurrence of the pathology occurred during the gradual regression of corticosteroid therapy, requiring the initiation of azathioprine with both good clinical and biological responses.

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Cold urticaria

Nathalie Bilem, Marie-Noelle Vogeleer, Julien Mergen, Samuel Balbeur Published in the journal : July 2021 Category : Clinical Report

Cold urticaria is a physical urticaria induced by contact with cold environments like water or air, but also by contact with cold objects, food, or beverages. The severity of the reaction can vary widely, ranging from a simple urticaria up to an anaphylaxis with cardiovascular collapse. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems are mostly involved in severe anaphylaxis cases. Severe anaphylaxis occurs most often following aquatic activities in cold water. The diagnosis is based on the clinical history together with an ice cube challenge test. The treatment is based on antihistamines, as well as on using an epinephrine auto-injector in anaphylaxis cases. Awareness on how to avoid risk factors is also crucial, particularly including a warning against immersion in water colder than 25°C and against the ingestion of very cold food. Differential diagnosis includes the different forms of chronic physical urticaria.

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Osteoid osteoma of the elbow, a rare condition that mimics inflammatory synovitis in a young patient: diagnosis and treatment

Daniel Glesener, Jean-François De Wispelaere, Jean-François Nisolle, Yves Boutsen Published in the journal : March 2021 Category : Clinical Report

An osteoid osteoma is a small benign bone tumor of young adults, usually involving the appendicular skeleton’s extra-articular portions of the lower limbs and spine, causing inflammatory pain of nocturnal recrudescence. We present the case of a 16-year-old patient with a rare intra-articular osteoma location of the distal humerus, complicated by a reactive arthritis. This condition can provoke irreversible functional impotence in case of delayed diagnosis and management. Ambulatory CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency thermo-ablation, which is less invasive than surgical options, has become the gold treatment standard. This case report illustrates the atypical clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic features of this rare pathology.

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Granulomatous reaction to silicone fillers following breast prosthesis rupture

Laeticia Famerée, Céline De Halleux, Liliane Marot, Claire Dachelet, Carlos Graux, Hugues Fierens Published in the journal : March 2021 Category : Clinical Report

The foreign body granuloma skin reactions to silicone fillers at the injection area have been widely reported in the literature, and they may even occur several years after the injection. Several cases of silicone migration into adjacent areas have been reported. On the other hand, and to the best of our knowledge, concomitant occurrences of granulomas at very old injection sites owing to massive silicone release following breast prosthesis ruptures have not yet been published.

The description of "siliconomas" or granulomas as a reaction to silicone is well established in the literature, though the exact underlying pathophysiological mechanism is not completely elucidated. This clinical case raises the question of a potential immune-mediated sensitization, which is deemed secondary to rupturing of silicone breast prosthesis. While these undesirable events are rare, they may become more common due to the rise in breast implant operations, given that most of them are silicone gel-filled implants.

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Anesthesia without opioids: May this be useful in Sub-Saharan countries?

Published in the journal : November 2020 Category : Clinical Report

The systematic use of opioids has made us lose sight of their significant adverse effects, including respiratory distress, hyperalgesia, as well as postoperative nausea and vomiting. Sub-Saharan African countries are currently facing the issue of post-interventional surveillance, with post-operative respiratory problems being rather common. Similarly, these countries experience difficulties in managing pain, nausea, and vomiting. At times, opioid ruptures may occur, which may lead to postponing surgical procedures, in a context where access to surgery is already a obstacle. The opioid-free anesthesia could be an interesting alternative for these countries, especially when using accessible drugs with simple protocols. Therefore, anesthesiologists from these countries should focus their interest on such anesthesia techniques, in the aim to better define their place in their daily practice and share their potential benefits in a limited-resource setting.

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