A 20-year-old female patient without comorbidities was admitted to the emergency department in a state of shock. Initially, a diagnosis of septic shock of urinary origin was established. The patient presented with abdominal pain associated with leukocyturia, along with a recent history of untreated cystitis. Admitted to the intensive care unit, the patient reported that she had kept a vaginal tampon for menstruation for over 24 hours during the day preceding her admission to the emergency department, following which the diagnosis of menstrual toxic shock syndrome (mTSS) was made. Antibiotic therapy with intravenous flucloxacillin and clindamycin was initiated.
This case presentation seeks to illustrate the different steps that led to this rare diagnosis, the relevance of a thorough history, as well as the treatment options.
What is already known about the topic?
This condition is a rare, yet possibly fatal disease, affecting women of childbearing age.
What does this article bring up for us?
This article provides a recent literature review, in addition to recalling diagnostic criteria, risk factors, management protocols, and treatment options, as well.
Menstrual toxic shock syndrome, Staphylococcus aureus, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, tampon, menstruation