Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis affects approximately 30% of hospitalized cirrhotic patients (1). Similar cases have been reported in patients suffering from carcinomatous ascites or receiving peritoneal dialysis (2). The most common pathogens are E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococci spp, and Enterobacteriaceae spp (3). In a minority of cases (<5%), other microorganisms are found, such as Candida, anaerobic bacteria, and Listeria (3). Only 108 cases of PSB Listeria have been reported in the scientific literature since 1977 (4). Identifying these cases proves paramount, because they are mainly resistant to cefotaxime (5).
What is already known about the topic?
Listeria monocytogenes is a rare cause of bacterial peritonitis, associated with poor prognosis. Appropriate antibiotic therapy may limit the damage.
What does this article bring up for us?
We illustrate this issue on the basis of a clinical case. We then provide a reminder on adequate care and optimal treatment.
Listeria monocytogenes, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, penicillin