Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder, primarily caused by parathyroid adenomas localized in the cervical region. We report the case of a patient with recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism due to a parathyroid adenoma located in the mediastinum, close to the thymus. Both localization and management of the adenoma proved laborious. At the light of this complex case report, we reviewed the diagnostic criteria and therapeutic guidelines for primary hyperparathyroidism. After multiple surgical procedures leading to the resection of the four parathyroid glands located in the cervical region and of the ectopic parathyroid adenoma located in the mediastinum, the patient developed postoperative hypocalcemia, which was quite difficult to manage.
Primary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid adenoma, hypercalcemia, hypocalcemia