Gestational diabetes refers to first-onset glucose intolerance occurring during pregnancy. The prevalence of this pathology was shown to vary widely, whilst currently increasing worldwide in relation to obesity and diabetes outbreak. The pathophysiology of gestational diabetes is similar to that of Type 2 diabetes, as characterized by increased insulin resistance and subsequent pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction. Even though complications of gestational diabetes are well-known, there is no universal consensus with respect to screening criteria. The cornerstone of treatment is diet, which may be followed by insulin therapy, if necessary. Post-partum follow-up appears essential, considering the high risk of diabetes in the patient's future.