Nephrolithiasis is a common condition affecting nearly 10% of the adult population, with a risk of recurrence exceeding 50%. In rare cases, nephrolithiasis can lead to end-stage renal disease. The increasing prevalence of nephrolithiasis is attributable to inherited metabolic factors in conjunction with environmental factors, such as dietary habits. The causes and mechanisms of stone formation can be determined by means of stone analysis (morphological analysis and infrared spectrophotometry) and crystalluria analysis. Calcium lithiasis is the most common form of nephrolithiasis (85%), and its medical treatment includes increased fluid intake along with some dietary modifications, such as normalization of calcium intake, restriction of animal protein and salt intake, and avoidance of food with high oxalate content. When medical treatment is well conducted, it significantly reduces the risk of recurrence.