Cytology plays a key role in the management of thyroid nodules. This technique may prove to be a valuable diagnostic tool for differentiating benign lesions from malignant ones, enabling us to better select those nodules that warrant surgery. The middle cytology liquid allows us to complete this process by adding immunocytochemical or molecular biology tests, as necessary. In the event of nodules presenting atypia of undetermined significance, recent studies have revealed that genome sequencing for detecting BRAF or RAS mutations may permit to assess the risk for malignancy of these thyroid nodules. It should yet be mentioned that only a close collaboration with the clinicians in charge of the patient, in addition to a sound correlation with clinical-radiological data, allows the cytological thyroid examination to prove well-performing.
Cytopathology, Bethesda classification, thyroid nodule, thyroid cancer, cytology