The aim of this article has been to revisit the history of the discovery of insulin, "officially" attributed to F.G. Banting and Ch. Best. The first administration of their pancreatic extract to humans was performed in January 1922 in Toronto. In reality, history has made these two names sacred, whereas others, in Canada and Europe, have also contributed in a decisive way to this discovery. Given this context, we wish to untangle the skeins by describing the essential role and major impact of other researchers from both Canada (J. Macleod and J.B. Collip) and Europe (M. Gley in France, G. Zuelzer in Germany, and N. Paulescu in France and Romania). This article thus primarily seeks to "render to Caesar what belongs to Caesar".
Diabetes, insulin discovery, Toronto, Europe, pioneers