During the year 2021, the European Society of Cardiology published new recommendations for the management of patients with chronic heart failure (1). Classically, patients with heart failure have previously been categorized according to the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Three different groups are currently recognized:
- Patients with reduced LVEF defined as LVEF ≤40%, which is referred to as heart failure with reduced Ejection Fraction).
- Patients with LVEF between 41% and 49%, i.e,. slightly reduced, which is referred to as heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction or HFrEF.
- Patients with signs or symptoms of heart failure with structural or functional cardiac abnormalities or elevated natriuretic peptides and an LVEF >50%, which is referred to as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction or HFpEF.
This article has reviewed the principles of pharmacological treatment pertaining to these three groups.