A certain number of foodstuff and dietary supplements have been shown to affect lipid levels. Data as to their impact on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity are, however, limited. Red yeast rice contains natural substances that exert HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity. The lack of standardization, great variability among different brands, and risk of interaction prompt us to invite you to limit their use. Although vegetable sterols in margarines reduce LDL-C levels, they have not yet been clinically evaluated. In mouse models, there is even some evidence of harmful vascular effects. While the Mediterranean diet definitely reduces the risk of cardiovascular events, there is no single but there are several Mediterranean diets, all rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans, nuts, and seeds, comprising olive oil as primary source of fat.