Numerous papers of clinical and therapeutic interest were published in 2015 in the field of diabetology. This article sought to review key messages emerging from these studies, which contribute to an improved management of diabetic subjects. We focused on the “finality” of international guidelines (ADA, EASD) relating to Type 2 diabetes. Therapeutic innovations with DPP-4 inhibitors and SGLT-2 inhibitors are also discussed, along with cognitive disorders in older diabetic patients. Finally, the association between pediatric Type 1 diabetes and psychiatric disorders is addressed.